The following are general layer blends.
Pass Through: When a folder is selected, the Pass Through blending mode treats all the layers within a group to behave separately as if they were individual layers.
Normal: “Normal” is the default blending mode. Your layer will cover the layer directly below it without any effect applied to it. You can, of course, reduce the opacity of the layer to reveal the layer below.
Dissolve: The Dissolve blending mode will not blend any layers. Instead, it only selects certain areas of the top and bottom layer to show, based on the opacity.
The following will darken your layer.
Darken: The Darken blending mode compares the base color of the layer and the blend colors and keeps the darkest of the two layers.
Multiply: The Multiply blending mode multiplies the luminosity of the base color by the blend color. This will make your layer darker, creating shadows and increasing depth.
Color Burn: The Color Burn blending mode increases the contrast between the base layer and the blend colors, giving you highly saturated mid-tones and reduced highlights. This will darken your image.
Linear Burn: The Linear Burn blending mode decreases the brightness of the base layer color based on the value of the blend color. This results in a layer that is darker than the Multiply mode, but less saturated than Color Burn mode. Linear Burn produces the most contrast in darker colors.
Darker Color: The Darker Color blending mode does not blend pixels. It only compares the base layer and blend colors and keeps the darkest of the two. This is not like the Darken mode as it does not actually blend the two layers.
The following will lighten your layer.
Lighten: The Lighten blending mode compares the base color of the layer and the blend colors and keeps the lightest of the two layers.
Screen: The Screen blending mode, will make the black part of your layer have zero change and accentuate the brighter colors. This will result in a layer that's color is always a brighter color. Screen is a great mode for brightening images or creating highlights.
Color Dodge: The Color Dodge blending mode decreases the contrast between the base layer and blend colors. This effect saturates the mid-tones and increases the highlights. The effect brightens up your layer.
Lighter Color: The Lighter Color blending mode does not blend layers. It only compares the base layer and blend colors, keeping the brightest of the two.
The following will create contrast in your layer.
Overlay: The Overlay Blending mode will either bring out or mute your colors.
Soft Light: The Soft Light blending mode subtlely applies either a darkening or lightening effect on your layer. Like Overlay, only not as drastic.
Hard Light: The Hard Light blending mode combines the effect of the Multiply and Screen blending modes. It uses the brightness values of the layer to determine its effect. The end result tends to be extremely drastic. So, in most instances, you will have to reduce the opacity for the best result.
Vivid Light: The Vivid Light blending mode makes anything that is darker than gray darker, and anything that is lighter than gray lighter. You will want to keep the opacity at 100% for this one.
Linear Light: The Linear Light blending mode combines Linear Dodge for the lighter colors and a Linear Burn for the darker colors.
Pin Light: The Pin Light blending mode combines the Darken and Lighten blending modes at the same time. It completely removes all the mid-tones and can result in blotchy patches in your layer.
Hard Mix: The Hard Mix blending mode keeps only the black, white, red, green blue, cyan, magenta, or yellow colors. This will drastically change your layer, but you can use opacity and fill to reduce the effect.
Difference: The Difference blending mode does not really change the black and dark areas of the layer, Instead it takes the lighter tones and inverts the colors.
Exclusion: The Exclusion blending mode does almost the same thing that Difference does. However, the white inverts the base layer color values, while the black produces no change.
Subtract: The Subtract blending mode removes color values from the base layer. This mode will dramatically darken colors by subtracting the brightness of each pixel.
Divide: The Divide blending mode adds color values from the base layer. So, this will lighten dark areas of your layer, while not changing any white in your layer. This effect could whitewash your whole layer, so keep this in mind when using this blending mode.
Hue: The Hue blending mode keeps the brightness and saturation of the base layer while adopting the hue that you choose.
Saturation: The Saturation blending mode keeps the brightness and hue of the base layer while adopting the saturation of the top blend layer. In this way, you can change the whole top layer black-and-white and turn the image into grayscale because none of the colors in the brightness layer have saturation.
Color: The Color Blending Mode keeps the brightness of the base layer while adopting the hue and saturation of the top blend layer. Use this blending mode for coloring monochromatic images.
Luminosity: The Luminosity blending mode keeps the hue and saturation of the base layer while adopting the luminosity, or brightness, of the top blend layer.